On 26th July 1913 the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) gathered at Hyde Park in London for a rally in support of Women’s Suffrage. Some sources suggest that up to 50,000 people, both men and women, attended this peaceful rally.
In her diary of July 9th Helen Clark writes that she and her daughter Esther met the NUWSS pilgrims at North Petherton and travelled with them to Bridgwater where they stayed overnight. The pair accompanied the procession as they travelled to Street the following day; Helen records that they were greeted with “a very fine entry and a large meeting with two platforms”.
Frances Sterling, the tall lady with the cane in the picture above, is recorded as staying with Helen and William Stephens Clark at Millfield when the pilgrims passed through Street. As chief spokesperson for the West of England contingent it is likely that Frances would have been one of the many speakers at the rally when it met in Hyde Park.
The parent company of Norvic Shoe Company Limited was Howlett & White, which started out as a leather currier. Warnes Howlett invested ten thousand pounds in Robert Tillyard’s leather currying business in around 1846. The extra money allowed him to move to Princes Street, into a larger premises. In 1856 George White agreed to join the Howlett company as a junior clerk, eventually working his way to the top. In 1876, when George White was general manager, he became co-partner with John Godfrey Howlett. George White had a factory built to avoid workers manufacturing at home, which he thought was wasteful of time.
One of the company’s achievements was the use of machines to cater for its sports users. One machine was used for inserting running spikes into shoes, whilst another was a corrugating machine for tennis shoes. Additionally, the Norvic solid rubber heel was believed to be the only solid heel in existence at that time.
Throughout the 19th century, the firm concentrated on making women’s shoes. They also supplied shoes globally to the British Empire, including Australia, New Zealand and America. Because of competition at home, the firm bought smaller firms to make men’s and children’s shoes. The company merged with Kiltie (S. L. Wilton Ltd.) around 1926 to produce children’s shoes. And in 1922 Howlett & White formed an association with Oakeshott & Finnemore to produce men’s shoes.
Just before 1913, Sir Ernest White and Cecil Colman persuaded the board to begin national advertising, using the name Norvic. This early experiment in national advertising was very successful. Consequently, Howlett and White became ‘Norvic’.
During both World Wars, Norvic produced shoes for the Allies, which included boots for the Armies of England, France and Russia and fur-lined boots for the air force.
During 1959 the firm recognised the teenage market made up only 9.7% of the population but spent 18.8% of the nation’s total expenditure on shoes. Consequently the firm employed a board of 7 teenage girls to provide advice on marketing to teenagers.
Unfortunately, Norvic closed in 1981.
Further information can be found https://norfolkrecordofficeblog.org/2016/11/10/norwich-shoemaking-from-howlett-and-white-to-norvic/
On this day in 1913, members of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies began their Pilgrimage towards Hyde Park, London.
This poster, designed by E H New, illustrates the six routes travelled as part of this Pilgrimage that sought support for the campaign for women’s suffrage.
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Carl Franz Bally (1821-1898) was the son of a silk-ribbon weaver. After being inspired by shoes on display in Paris, he founded ‘Bally & Co.’ in 1851, along with his brother. Carl employed German shoemakers to hand-make shoes in the basement of his own home. He aimed to create exquisite footwear from the finest leather, using the most innovative craftsmanship, infusing a strong sense of functionality and modernity. After initial problems with production and quality, and after the company grew, a factory was built in 1854 in the centre of the village. In 1860 Bally employed 500 craftsmen and transformed the village of Schönenwerd into a Company Town (remind you of anywhere?!), offering a host of benefits from healthcare to social amenities.
Bally’s achievements have been numerous, most famously, Charlie Chaplin being featured in one of its advertising films in the 1930s, created by advertising industry pioneer Julius Pinschewer. Additionally, the Bally Rominger Ski Boots were worn by gold-medal winners at the St. Moritz Winter Olympics in 1948.
In 1976, Bally expanded beyond footwear, and started selling clothing and accessories such as handbags. In 1990 they expanded globally, opening and growing operations in countries such as Japan, Australia, Turkey and Brazil.
Further details about the heritage of Bally can be found here.
Peter Yapp Ltd. the shoemaker was established by Samuel Yapp in 1793 in Chelsea. His son George joined him later, when the business was located at 200 Sloane Street. In 1851 Peter, the son of George became involved with the business, and by 1870 the business had expanded to include 201 and 210 Sloane Street in London.
A Royal Warrant was awarded to Peter Yapp by Queen Victoria, which it continued to hold until its demise. The Yapp company supplied shoes to the princesses Elizabeth and Margaret as they grew up, as the Yapp family concentrated on making shoes for the younger generation, especially those of distinguished society.
George Yapp, who died in 1944, claims that his business was the first to respond to English feet being typically long and narrow, which required narrower fittings.
Around 1944, C & J Clark Ltd. acquired Peter Yapp Ltd. via Peter Lord, but the company remained independent, as merging with Peter Lord would have meant forfeiting its Royal Warrant. Nevertheless, by this time, Yapp had ceased manufacturing footwear and concentrated solely upon retailing.
An ongoing specialisation in the provision of footwear for children meant the children’s section was refurbished and re-opened in 1949 by Julia ‘Toots’ Lockwood the eight-year-old daughter of actress, Margaret Lockwood.
On 19th February 1959, the shop was re-opened following the refurbishment of the women’s and children’s sections. At this point Yapp was selling, amongst other brands, Clarks Skyline shoes.
Sadly, on 19th January 1971, the company ceased trading after 178 years.
Reading Edwardian letters can be a tricky thing! Handwriting may look stylish on the page, beautiful even, but getting to grips with their actual reading can be an altogether different matter. So, in conjunction with our MCG cataloguing project one of our talented volunteers, Wendy, has been producing transcripts of associated documents to assist researchers in the future to understand the contents and context of this resource.
What began as an associated project however is beginning to illuminate the value of many other family archive collections. Take for example the Millfield Visitors Book of 1897-1910. One can only imagine the dinner party conversations between the Clarks and the continuous flow of suffragist, liberal, socially aware and academic visitors, many of the Quakers, who stayed with them. How influential would this forum have been to the spread and development of ideas?
On this anniversary of the Representation of the People Act 1918 it is interesting to reflect on the visitors to Millfield in just one year 1904, a year when frustration with the lack of progress in women gaining the vote led to the beginnings of militant action. Helen Priestman Bright Clark, who had been publicly campaigning for women’s suffrage since the 1870s, played hostess to her equally long-time suffragist aunts Margaret Tanner, Anna M Priestman and Mary Priestman in July 1904.
at the home of William S Clark – Street – Somerset – England
At last I have been in the home of my friend Helen Bright Clark and have seen her
all – except the son John, is just married and away on his wedding tour – it is
an ideal home – all the daughters have chosen their profession – and seem to
have a purpose in life – may they all be prosperous and all be happy, is the best wish of their friend Susan B Anthony
September of the same year sees a visit by young relations Fay McLaren (later known as the activist Lady Norman) and Henry McLaren (elected Liberal MP in 1906) at the same time as Joseph Chamberlain’s niece Charlotte. Staying with the family from 4-7 October Emily Hobhouse – whose descriptions of work post Boer War in South Africa were to have such an influence on Margaret Clark.
Altogether 74 visitors are known to have stayed at Millfield during 1904 – a mix of relations, Quaker Friends and fellow campaigners from around the globe from Somerset to Australia.
I for one would have loved to have been a fly on the wall!
Rationing introduced as part of the war effort during World War II reduced the amount of leather available for making shoes for civilians. Shoemakers were therefore forced to experiment with different materials to replace this depleting resource in their shoes.
One solution to this problem was to use natural resources. Norway and Denmark made use of their fish resource, after their animal hides were confiscated by occupying forces. They did this by replacing their confiscated leather with fish skin. Brightly coloured dyes and textured pebble surfaces disguised the inferior quality of the material.
Within our collection we discovered examples of fish skin being used on the upper section of various shoes. These unusual shoes were wartime experiments from the early 1940s. They were created by the shoe company Eduard Rheinberger A.G. of Pirmasens in west Germany.
The fish skin is surprisingly robust, having survived almost completely intact, and has a noticeably intriguing pattern compared with leather.
However, the use of fish skins did not necessarily begin in the 1940s. The decreasing length of skirts in the 1920s sparked a change in fashion, increasing shoe production. By the end of the 1920s sea leathers had been invented, which used the skins of fish in the shark family. Although commonly used in Japan, this was a quite innovative idea in Europe. One of the earlier designers to use sea skins was Salvatore Ferragamo, who used sea-leopard to make his shoes from 1928.
By Rebecca Wormald, Documentation Officer
The Shoe Digitisation Project has just passed a massive milestone; we have now taken over 100,000 images of shoes!
Since 2014, a dedicated team of professionals have been working on the project to clean, document, repackage and photograph our historic shoe collection. We now have a photographic record of over 7,000 shoes predating 1979, and the team are shortly going to start on the 1980s collection.
The honour of the 100,000th image went to this gorgeous front lace boot, made in America in 1900.
In September, the Alfred Gillett Trust hosted a hugely successful pop-up exhibition of fossilised ichthyosaurs found in Street as part of the national Heritage Open Days initiative. Over 2,200 people attended the four day exhibition, which saw the fossils on display in the town they were found for the first time in 40 years.
16 large ichthyosaur fossils were on display, as well a selection of smaller fossils found in the local area. Known as ‘sea dragons’, ichthyosaurs were dolphin-like marine reptiles which swam in the warm seas which covered Somerset around 200 million years ago. Street is known internationally for the quality and quantity of the fossils found in the local blue lias rock.
The fossils were found in local quarries in the 19th century by Alfred Gillett, a cousin of the founders of Clarks the shoemakers. Clark family members were also interested in the fossils which were being discovered in the area, and this impressive collection gradually developed. First displayed in Glastonbury Town Hall in 1880, the fossils were soon moved into a purpose-built Geological Museum in Crispin Hall in Street, which was opened in 1887.
Noted geologists and academics visited the collection to study them, along with tourists and residents in the locality of Street. Such was the importance of the collection and the affection held for the fossils in the area that the newly formed Street Urban District Council chose the ichthyosaur as their symbol in 1894. It is still used today by local societies and associations.
The fossils were finally taken off public display in 1978 when they were moved into storage for conservation. The Trust plan to begin a project to properly document, conserve and re-display the collection, and are looking for volunteers to help with this project.
One visitor said, “exciting days ahead for Street with these wonderful things being ‘rediscovered’…thank you Clark family/ Alfred Gillett for having such a fantastic archive.”
For more details on the fossils contact us or ring the Alfred Gillett Trust 01458 444060.
Film fans braved the summer showers this weekend to attend the first outdoor film festival in Street organised by Strode Theatre. Over 500 visitors enjoyed three nights of films on the big screen, in the grounds of the Grange, a Grade II manor house in the heart of Street which is home to the Alfred Gillett Trust.
Mamma Mia! kicked off the festival, with visitors singing and dancing along to the hits of Abba. Family favourite Jurassic Park saw Clarks Village reverberate to the sound of dinosaurs, with The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel rounding off the festival on Sunday night.
The Alfred Gillett Trust is an independent charity which was set up to preserve the cultural history of shoemaking in the Street area and beyond, and has its archive and reading room at the Grange. Visitors were treated to cinema adverts from the 1960s as part of the evening entertainment, giving a taste of what the archives from Street have to offer.
Natalie Watson, Interim Director of the Alfred Gillett Trust said, “Our collaboration with Strode Theatre shows how community groups can work together to create interesting cultural events for the people of Somerset. This is a great addition to the various events the Trust are planning which we hope will increase access and awareness of the fantastic collections we have on our doorstep here in Street.”
New Strode Theatre Manager Fares K Moussa said “I am delighted to have been able to offer this first short programme of outdoor films in partnership with the great team at Alfred Gillet Trust. The grounds of the Grange make a perfect location for events like this. Our hope is that we can develop this event over the years to provide wider communities with great summer outdoor arts and entertainment.”
The team would like to thank all the volunteers who helped make the event a success, as well as St John’s Ambulance for providing support and local producers House’s Cider from West Pennard.
Strode Theatre has a packed programme of cinema and live broadcasts and full details can be found at www.strodetheatre.org.uk or by ringing 01458 442846. For more information about the Alfred Gillett Trust, conact us.